Unquestionably, dry eye drop formulations have moved forward significantly – but even more sophisticated preparations are in the pipeline.
Under hyper-osmolar tears, the most common form of DED, ocular surface epithelial cells lose water to the more concentred tears above. In turn, these cells increase their electrolyte concentration (continuing another vicious cycle), which can lead to cellular damage. If specific solutes are added to the dry eye product, these osmo- or bio-protectants can prevent this. (2)
Examples of these would be erythritol, levocarnotine and trehalose.